ایران

Artichoke

گیاگانی ، گیاه آنغوزه

 : Overview 

 

- Alcachofa;

- Alcaucil;

- ALE;

- Artichaut;

- Artichaut Commun;

- Artichoke Extract;

- Artichoke Fruit;

- Artichoke Leaf;

- Artichoke Leaf Extract;

- Artischocke;

- Cardo;

- Cardo de Comer;

- Cardon d'Espagne;

- Cardoon;

- Cynara;

- Cynara Cardunculus;

- Cynara Scolymus;

- Garden Artichoke;

- Gemuseartischocke;

- Globe Artichoke;

- Kardone;

- Tyosen-Azami;

- Wild Egyptian.

 

 Overview Information

Artichoke is a plant. The leaf, stem, and root are used to make “Extracts”. “Extracts” contain a higher concentration of certain chemicals that are found naturally in the plant. These extracts are used as medicine.

Artichoke is used to stimulate the flow of bile from the liver. This is thought to help reduce symptoms of heartburn and alcohol “Hangover”. Artichoke is also used for high cholesterol, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), kidney problems, anemia, fluid retention (edema), arthritis, bladder infections, and liver problems, including hepatitis C.

Some people use artichoke for treating snakebites, preventing gallstones, lowering blood pressure, lowering blood sugar, to increase urine flow, and as a tonic or stimulant.

In foods, artichoke leaves and extracts are used to flavor beverages. Cynarin and chlorogenic acid, which are chemicals found in artichoke, are sometimes used as sweeteners.

Don't confuse artichoke with Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus).

 

 How Does It Work?

Artichoke has chemicals that can reduce nausea and vomiting, spasms, and intestinal gas. These chemicals have also been shown to lower cholesterol and protect the liver.

 

 : Uses & Effectiveness 

 Possibly Effective for:

 

© Indigestion

Research shows that taking artichoke extract by mouth can reduce symptoms of indigestion such as nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and stomach pain. Improvement seems to occur after 2 to 8 weeks of treatment.

 

© High Cholesterol

Research shows that taking artichoke extract by mouth can slightly reduce total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol in people with high cholesterol. Improvements seem to occur after 6 to 12 weeks of treatment. Studies using cynarin, a specific chemical found in artichoke, have shown conflicting results.

Drinking artichoke juice does not seem to lower cholesterol levels. In fact, artichoke juice might increase levels of blood fats called triglycerides.

 

 Possibly Ineffective for:

 

© Alcohol-Induced Hangover

Research shows that taking artichoke extract by mouth does not prevent a hangover after drinking alcohol.

 

Ø Insufficient Evidence for:

 

© Hepatitis C

Some early research shows that taking artichoke extract by mouth for 12 weeks improves liver health in people with hepatitis C. But not all research agrees.


© High Blood Pressure

Early research shows that taking concentrated artichoke juice in capsule form for 12 weeks slightly lowers blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.


© Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Early research shows that taking artichoke extract by mouth can reduce symptoms of IBS such as stomach pain, cramping, bloating, gas, constipation, and heartburn.


© Anemia

-

© Arthritis

-


© High Blood Pressure

-


© Kidney Problems

-


© Liver Problems

-


© Preventing Gallstones

-


© Snakebites

-


© Water Retention

-


© Other Conditions

-

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of artichoke for these uses.

 : Side Effects & Safety 

Artichoke is likely safe when consumed in amounts used in foods.

Artichoke is possibly safe when taken by mouth as a medicine. It has been used safely in research for up to 23 months.

In some people, artichoke can cause side effects such as gas, upset stomach, and diarrhea. Artichoke might also cause allergic reactions. People at the greatest risk of allergic reactions are those who are allergic to plants such as marigolds, daisies, and other similar herbs.

 

 Special Precautions & Warnings:

 

© Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding

There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking artichoke if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

 

© Bile Duct Obstruction

There is concern that artichoke might worsen bile duct obstruction by increasing bile flow. If you have this condition, don't use artichoke without first talking with your healthcare provider.

 

© Allergy to Ragweed and Related Plants

Artichoke may cause an allergic reaction in people who are sensitive to the Asteraceae/Compositae family. Members of this family include ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, and many others. If you have allergies, be sure to check with your healthcare provider before taking artichoke.

 

© Gallstones

Artichoke might make gallstones worse by increasing bile flow.

 

 Interactions

We currently have no information for Artichoke Interactions.

 

 Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

By mouth:

 

© For indigestion

320-640 mg of artichoke leaf extract has been used three times daily for up to 8 weeks.

 

© For High Cholesterol

500-1920 mg of artichoke extract has been taken daily in divided doses. Also, 60 mg per day of the active ingredient, cynarin, have also been used.

(“Artichoke”; WebMD).

 : Synonyms 

Artichoke

Cynara Scolymus

(Luengo, López; Tránsito, Mária; Máñez, Carlota; “Medicinal Plants at Home: More Than 100 Easy, Practical, and Efficient Natural Remedies”; Skyhorse; 2015).

English:

Globe Artichoke

العربيه:

خرشوف

Català:

Carxofera

čeština:

Artyčok

Dansk:

Artiskok

Deutsch:

Artischocke

Ελληνικά:

Αγκινάρα

Esperanto:

Artiŝoko

Español:

Alcachofa, Alcaucil

فارسی:

کنگر فرنگی

Suomi:

Latva-artisokka

Français:

Artichaut

עברית:

ארטישוק

Magyar:

Articsóka

Ido:

Artichoko

日本語:

アーティチョーク

Lietuvių:

Tikrasis Artišokas

Nederlands:

Artisjok

Polski:

Karczoch zwyczajny

Português:

Alcachofra

русский:

Артишок

Shqip:

Angjinarja

Svenska:

Kronärtskocka

Türkçe:

Enginar Tiếng

Việt:

Artichoke

中文:

洋薊

(“Cynara Cardunculus Scolymus Group”; www.wikipedia.com).

Unani:

Harshaf.

(Cech, Richo; Cech, Sena; “Making Plant Medicine”; Herbal Reads LLC; 2016).

 

 Trinomial Name

Cynara Cardunculus Var. Scolymus L.

(“Artichoke”; www.wikipedia.com).

 

 Other Names

- Heartichoke;

- Artichocus

Note - Culpeper calls it the Heartichoke, and states: “The Latins call them Cinera, only our college calls them Artichocus”.

- Globe Artichoke;

- Green Artichoke;

- French Artichoke.

Note - The plant is named as Scolymus (pointed stake) from the Greek Island of Kinara (Cynara).

(Breverton, Terry; “Breverton's Complete Herbal - A Book of Remarkable and their Uses - Based on Culpeper's The English Physition of 1652 and Compleat Herball”; Quercus Publishing Inc).

 : Useful Plant Parts and How to Use  

Artichoke

Use

 Cares for the Liver and Lowers Cholesterol

Although previously it had not been given much importance as a medicinal plant, from the twentieth century on, it has begun to enjoy a reputation as a remedy for liver and biliary disorders. In fact, some of its active ingredients are included in pharmaceutical products for liver health.

 

 When should you use it?

Both its leaves and stem, whether fresh or dried, are an excellent remedy for liver damage and biliary diseases, besides being hepatoprotectve (that is, it protects the liver from toxins). It is cholagogue and choleretic, which promotes good digestive functions. It is a highly recommended remedy for slow digestion and liver failure. It is also diuretic, purifying, and contributes to the elimination of urea, so it is beneficial for those suffering from kidney failure. Artichoke also helps lower blood cholesterol levels.

 

 Presentation

The most common way of benefitting from its medicinal properties is by eating fresh artichoke heads. Besides eating artichokes, you can prepare fresh juice using fresh leaves; drink it immediately, because you can only keep it for a few hours.

For making infusion (1 teaspoon per cup) you can easily find its leaves, dried and chopped. Use it in tincture (1 teaspoon [6 milliliters] every 8 hours), ampoules (with the liquid extract), and capsules (dry artichoke or extract powder).

 

 Remedies

ü By Itself

Infusion for proper digestion:

Add a teaspoon of leaves to a cup of boiling water. Let it steep for 10 minutes and strain. Drink it half an hour before meals. It can be sweetened with sugar or honey.

 

ü Combined

Regulatory hepatic infusion: mix equal parts boldo, artichoke, and thistle. Mix a teaspoon of this mixture per cup of boiling water and let it steep for 10 minutes. Then strain it and drink 3 cups a day, half an hour before meals

(Luengo, López; Tránsito, Mária; Máñez, Carlota; “Medicinal Plants at Home: More Than 100 Easy, Practical, and Efficient Natural Remedies”; Skyhorse; 2015).

 

 Parts Used

The leaves harvested just prior to flowering and dried. The flower buds (the “chokes”), harvested while young and succulent.

 

 Tincture of Dried Leaf

1:5 (50A:50W).

 

 Water Extract

Basic tea of the dried leaves.

 

 Direct Consumption

Thoroughly boil or steam the flower bud for 20 minutes or more, until the fleshy sepals (scales) are cooked through. Dip the scales in garlic oil or melted butter with garlic, and use the teeth to strip off the edible, fleshy portions. Eat the heart, but reject the pappus hairs and spiny parts.

 

 Practical Uses

The tincture or tea of artichoke leaves, and to a lesser extent the chokes eaten as a nutritious food, are a valuable stimulant to the liver and the gall bladder, promoting production of bile and assisting in digestion of fats. The herb is a specific for treating dyspepsia caused by overeating or the excessive use of fats in the diet. As a secondary effect, the herb also demonstrates hepatoprotective activity (much like milk thistle, which see). Use of artichoke is a valuable therapy for treating arteriosclerosis, gallstones, elevated blood cholesterol, and obesity.

(Cech, Richo; Cech, Sena; “Making Plant Medicine”; Herbal Reads LLC; 2016).

 

 Dosage

The recommended dosage of artichoke depends on what it is being used for. For general use, the recommended dosage is 320-1800 milligrams of standardized artichoke extract daily for 6 weeks. German Commission E recommends 6 grams of the dried herb or its equivalent daily, usually divided into three doses. The expert panel of the German Commission E has recommended 6 mL of tincture given three times daily.

For alcohol-induced hangover, the recommended dosage is 960 milligrams immediately before and after consumption of alcohol.

For dyspepsia, the recommended dosage is 640 milligrams of standardized artichoke extract three times daily for six weeks.

For irritable bowel syndrome, the recommended dosage is 320-1920 milligrams of extract daily for six to eight weeks.

For lipid-lowering, the recommended dosage is 320-1920 milligrams of standardized extract (Hepar-SL® forte) daily for four to twelve weeks

("Artichoke"; Vitagene).

 

According to basic recommendations found under “Dosage of Tinctures,” and “Dosage of Teas and Decoctions”.

 

 Dosage of Tinctures

The advantages of taking herbs in tincture form are many. Tinctures are stable, convenient, and due to the fact that they are cold-processed and preserved from enzymatic change through the addition of alcohol, they probably represent the actual chemistry of the herb more closely than any other preparation. Because they are liquid, the dosage can be regulated almost infinitely, from near-homeopathic dosages (1 drop diluted in water and taken over time) to heroic dosages (1⁄4 ounce or more taken over the space of a few hours).

Tinctures are quickly and readily absorbed into the bloodstream through the lining of the stomach and, because of this, their effects are not dependent upon the efficiency of digestion.

This is an advantage over solid preparations (tablets or capsules), but it also means that one must remember to take the tincture several times daily in order to produce the desired effect.

Absorption is a bit more efficient if the extract is taken between meals, and tasting the herbs without the buffering of other food will maximize the benefits because in many cases, especially with bitter or immune-enhancing herbs, the taste is part of the effect.

The most important time to remember to take the extract is just before bed. At this time, the  body is in its most receptive phase, allowing the herbs to tonify the body organs and orchestrate the body processes in a clear and uncomplicated manner.

The basic dosage recommendations given in this section apply to tinctures that are safe for general consumption. Please check the formulary section of this book for potential contraindications. The decision to take an herb should be based on good herbalism and the advice of a qualified health care provider.

 

© Dosage for Infants (10 weeks to 3 years)

The average dosage for infants is 2 to 5 drops well-diluted in water, milk, or juice, taken 3 to 5 times daily. Most herbs are safe for consumption by infants, but low-dose botanicals (e.g. arnica, lobelia) should be avoided. Infants are very sensitive to herbal therapy and should be given the minimum effective dosage. In treating infant colic, it often makes sense for the mother to take the herb, delivering the influence to the child by way of the breast milk.

 

© Dosage for children (4 years to 10 years)

The average dosage for children is 5 to 15 drops well-diluted in water or juice, taken 3 to 5 times daily. As with infants, the low-dose botanicals should be avoided in favor of gentler herbs.

 

© Adult Dosage

The normal adult dosage of most tinctures is 30 to 60 drops (1 to 2 standard droppersful) diluted in a little water and taken 3 to 5 times daily. This represents a therapeutic level of intake, and is an appropriate starting dosage.

 

© Senior Dosage

Seniors tend to be very sensitive to herbal therapy. A good starting dosage is 1 dropperful (30 drops) taken 3 to 5 times daily.

 

© Body Weight

Small individuals with high metabolic rate require smaller doses. Larger individuals with slow metabolism require larger doses. For example, a little woman who has eaten nothing but bread and jam all day, flitting about the library from book to book like a hummingbird after nectar, will probably notice the effects of a fairly small beginning dosage of tincture. The logger slumped down in an easy chair in the corner of the library reading the paper (automotive section—used 4x4s), who has made the bulk of his daily caloric intake out of cans of “beanie weenies,” will require a larger dose of medicinal herbs to notice any effect.

 

© Severity of the Condition

Acute phase conditions may call for more frequent dosage, while certain chronic conditions may require less frequent dosage. For instance, at the beginning phase of an acute infection, echinacea tincture is taken with frequency, as often as every 1⁄2-hour for maximum effect. Conversely, the tendency toward chronic upper respiratory infection may be suitably addressed by taking astragalus only once or twice daily as a tonic. In most cases, one will begin to feel an effect from the herbs after 2 or 3 doses, and the size and frequency of the dose can be regulated in accordance with the degree of effect desired.

 

© Severity of the Condition

Acute phase conditions may call for more frequent dosage, while certain chronic conditions may require less frequent dosage. For instance, at the beginning phase of an acute infection, echinacea tincture is taken with frequency, as often as every 1⁄2-hour for maximum effect. Conversely, the tendency toward chronic upper respiratory infection may be suitably addressed by taking astragalus only once or twice daily as a tonic. In most cases, one will begin to feel an effect from the herbs after 2 or 3 doses, and the size and frequency of the dose can be regulated in accordance with the degree of effect desired.

 

© Nature of the Herbs

Certain herbs (e.g. milk thistle) can be taken several times daily for as many days as one desires, without experiencing any deleterious effects. Other herbs (e.g. comfrey) contain potentially toxic substances. These should be taken only at recommended dosage and only for a short period of time.

Low-dose botanicals (e.g. arnica) that contain very active constituents are listed in the formulary section of this book, along with the recommended maximum dosages.

 

© Frequency of Dosage

Because herbs work gently, making changes by slowly nudging the body toward homeostasis, taking small amounts of tincture with regular frequency is the desired model. Large, single doses have less effect than smaller, frequent doses. Therefore, once the beginning dosage has been set according to body weight, it makes sense to increase the dosage by taking the herb more frequently—not by taking more drops.

 

© Appropriate Use

It should go without saying that herbs have a physiological effect, and if used inappropriately, they will act adversely. For instance, it would not make sense for someone suffering from an inflamed liver to use a liver-stimulating herb like Oregon grape.

 

 Dosage of Teas and Decoctions - Herbal Syrups

Traditionally, herbal syrups are made by combining 2 parts of sugar by weight with 1 part of water extract (strong tea or decoction) by volume. For example, 500 grams of sugar are combined with 250 ml of a concentrated tea or decoction, dissolved over gentle heat, while stirring constantly, until the sugar dissolves, in order to produce medicated syrup. This syrup carries the active constituents of the herb in a very agreeable form that generally meets with enthusiastic patient compliance. The product is fully preserved, but subject to crystallization. I personally am not in favor of using white sugar, which is not a healthy substance, and recommend instead that herbal syrups be made with raw honey.

Honey makes a very good carrier for cough medicines and for laxatives. It is also an acceptable carrier for many other herbs with the exception of bitter herbs, since, in this case, the effects are dependent largely upon the bitter taste.

 

 Other Species

The genus Cynara contains 11 species, several of which have been used for food and medicine. Cardoon (C. cardunculus) and wild artichoke (C. humilis) are progenitors to the globe artichoke and medicinally interchangeable with it—they are characterized by their small flowers.

Traditionally, the leaf stalks of these plants are boiled and eaten as a vegetable, and the dried flowers are used as a substitute for rennet in cheese making.

Members of the Cynara genus should not be confused with Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus), which are only distantly related and are medicinally dissimilar

(Cech, Richo; Cech, Sena; “Making Plant Medicine”; Herbal Reads LLC; 2016).

 

§ Medical Research

Artichoke leaf extract has been investigated for its potential to lower cholesterol levels for people with Hypercholesterolaemia. A 2013 meta-analysis found it to have a modest effect on reducing cholesterol levels, but with results not compelling enough to recommend its use as a treatment for hypercholesterolaemia. More research was recommended

(“Artichoke”; www.wikipedia.com).

 

 Action

Herb—antitoxic, liver restorative, hypocholesterolaemic.

Water soluble extract is used for liver and renal diseases for its cholagogic and choleretic action (flow of bile increases up to 60 percent). Artichokes assist digestion of fats, are known as Diabetic’s Potato in Europe.

 

 Key Application

In dyspeptic problems (German Commission E). The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia reported hepatic action. All parts of the plant contains sesquiterpene lactone cynaropecrin and inulin. The leaves contain cynarin. Hepatic activity of the leaves is due to polyphenols such as cynarin, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Cynarin and caffeic acid exhibited hepatoprotective activity in CCl4-treated rats (A minimum of 1% polyphenols and 0.2% flavonoids in the dried leaves is required for the activity). The plant is included in indigenous compound formulations recommended for viral and drug-induced hepatitis. All parts of the plant stimulate digestive secretions, especially bile, and are used for the treatment of gallbladder problems. Plant is used as a diuretic in dropsy. The plant is also used against atherosclerosis and for lowering cholesterol levels. The extract gave mixed results in preventing alcohol-induced hangover (CMAJ, 169, 2003, 1269-73; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007)

(Cech, Richo; Cech, Sena; “Making Plant Medicine”; Herbal Reads LLC; 2016)

 : Uses  

 Medicinal Plant

 Activities

ü Antiaggregant

(1; MAB);

ü Antiatherosclerotic

(1; BGB);

ü Antiemetic

(1; BGB; MAB);

ü Antiinflammatory

(1; APA);

ü Antioxidant

(1; MAB);

ü Antispasmodic

(1; BGB; SHT);

ü Antitumor

(1; APA);

ü Aperitif

(1; PH2);

ü Aphrodisiac

(f; APA);

ü Bitter

(1; APA; PHR; PH2);

ü Carminative

(2; BGB);

ü Cholagogue

(1; SHT);

ü Cholekinetic

(1; SHT);

ü Choleretic

(2; CAN; KOM; PH2; SHT);

ü Deodorant

(f; MAB);

ü Depurative

(f; MAB);

ü Digestive

(f; PH2);

ü Diuretic

(1; APA; CAN; HHB; MAB);

ü Hepatoprotective

(1; APA; BGB; CAN; MAB; SHT);

ü Hepatotonic

(1; BGB; CAN; PH2);

ü Hypocholesterolemic

(2; BGB; CAN; MAB);

ü Hypoglycemic

(1; APA);

ü Hypolipidemic

(1; CAN);

ü Laxative

(1; MAB);

ü Lipolytic

(1; BGB; MAB; PH2; SHT);

ü Nephrotonic

(1; MAB);

ü Tonic

(f; PHR);

ü Uricosuric

(1; MAB).

 

Ø Indications

ü Albuminuria

(f; HHB);

ü Anemia

(f; APA);

ü Anorexia

(2; MAB; PHR; PH2);

ü Arsenic-Poisoning

(1; MAB);

ü Arthrosis

(1; APA; MAB);

ü Ascites

(1; MAB);

ü Atherosclerosis

(1; APA; BGB; HHB; MAB);

ü Bloating

(f; APA);

ü Body Odor

(f; MAB);

ü Cancer

(1; APA);

ü Cardiopathy

(1; BGB; CAN; MAB);

ü Catarrh

(f; HHB);

ü Cholecystosis

(2; PHR; PH2);

ü Cholestasis

(1; MAB);

ü Constipation

(1; MAB);

ü Cramp

(1; BGB; SHT);

ü Dermatosis (f; HHB);

ü Diabetes

(1; APA; WOI);

ü Dropsy

(f; MAB; WOI);

ü Dyspepsia

(2; KOM; PH2);

ü Edema

(f; MAB);

ü Flatulence

(2; APA; BGB; MAB);

ü Frigidity

(f; APA);

ü Gallbladder

(2; BGB; PHR; SHT);

ü Gallstone

(f; APA; MAB; PHR; PH2);

ü Gas

(2; BGB);

ü Gout

(1; MAB);

ü Hepatosis

(2; CAN; PHR; PH2; SHT);

ü High Cholesterol

(2; BGB; CAN; MAB);

ü High Triglyceride

(1; APA; CAN; MAB);

ü Hyperglycemia

(1; APA);

ü Impotence

(f; APA);

ü Inflammation

(1; APA);

ü Itch

(f; MAB);

ü Jaundice

(1; APA; HHB; MAB);

ü Nausea

(1; APA; MAB);

ü Nephrosclerosis

(f; MAB);

ü Obesity

(1; CAN);

ü Oliguria

(f; MAB);

ü Pain

(1; APA);

ü Renosis

(1; MAB);

ü Rheumatism

(1; MAB; WOI);

ü Snakebite

(f; APA);

ü Stone

(f; MAB; PH2);

ü Thick Blood

(1; MAB);

ü Tumor

(1; APA);

ü Uremia

(f; MAB);

  ü Vomiting

(1; APA; BGB; MAB);

ü Water Retention

(1; APA; CAN; HHB; MAB).

 

  Dosages

Ÿ Food farmacy;

Ÿ 2–3 (100 mg) capsule StX for 15 mg each caffeoylquinic acids (APA);

Ÿ 1–4 g leaf 3 ×/day (CAN);

Ÿ 1.5–9 g dry leaf/day (MAB);

Ÿ 1–4 g root 3 ×/day (CAN);

Ÿ 1–4 g stem 3 ×/day (CAN);

Ÿ 3–8 ml fluid extract (1:2) (MAB);

Ÿ 500 mg dry extract (PH2)

(Duke, James A.; Jo Bogenschutz-Godwin, Mary; duCellier, Judi; Duke, Peggy-Ann K.; “Handbook of Medicinal Herbs”; 2002).

 

 Pharmacological Actions

Several pharmacological properties have been documented for artichoke leaf, including inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis, hypolipidaemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. It remains unclear which of the constituents of artichoke are responsible for its pharmacological activities. The dicaffeoylquinic acids, which include cynarin, are likely to be an important group

of constituents in this respect (Fintelmann V, Menssen HG. Artichoke leaf extract. Current Knowledge Concerning Its Efficacy as a Lipid-Reducer and Antidyspeptic Agent. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 1996; 136: 1405–1414; and Mills S, Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000). The sesquiterpene lactones, such as cynaropicrin, and flavonoids, such as luteolin glycoside, may also exert biological effects (Reference: Fintelmann V, Menssen HG. Artichoke Leaf Extract. Current Knowledge Concerning Its Efficacy as a Lipid-Reducer and Antidyspeptic Agent. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 1996; 136: 1405–1414).

 

  In Vitro and Animal Studies

© Hypolipidaemic, Hypocholesterolaemic and Choleretic Activity

Hypolipidaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and choleretic activities are well documented for globe artichoke leaf extract and particularly for the constituent cynarin (Reference: Kraft K. Artichoke Leaf Extract – Recent Findings Reflecting Effects on Lipid Metabolism, Liver and Gastrointestinal Tracts. Phytomedicine 1997; 4: 369–378; and Fintelmann V, Menssen HG. Artichoke leaf extract. Current Knowledge Concerning its Efficacy as a Lipid-Reducer and Antidyspeptic Agent. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 1996; 136: 1405–1414). Globe artichoke leaf extract not only increases choleresis and, therefore, cholesterol elimination, but also has been shown to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis (Reference: Kraft K. Artichoke Leaf Extract – Recent Findings Reflecting Effects on Lipid Metabolism, Liver and Gastrointestinal Tracts. Phytomedicine 1997; 4: 369–378). Preparations of globe artichoke leaf extract inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in a concentration-dependent manner in studies in cultured rat hepatocytes (Reference: Gebhardt R. Artischockenextrakt. In Vitro Nachweis Einer Hemmwirkung Auf Die Cholesterin-Biosynthese. Med Welt 1995; 46: 348–350; and Gebhardt R. Inhibition of Cholesterol Biosynthesis in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes by Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Extracts. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 286: 1122–1128). Low concentrations (<0.1 mg/mL) of globe artichoke extract achieved around 20% inhibition, whereas 65% inhibition was noted with concentrations of 1 mg/mL. Luteolin was considered to be one of the most important constituents for this effect, and it was suggested that a possible mechanism of action might be indirect inhibition of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA) (Reference: Gebhardt R. Inhibition of Cholesterol Biosynthesis in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes by Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Extracts. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 286: 1122–1128). Other in vitro studies have documented a concentration-dependent inhibition of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis in cultured rat and human hepatocytes for globe artichoke leaf extract 0.03–0.1 mg/mL (Reference: Petrowicz O et al. Effects of Artichoke Leaf Extract (ALE) on Lipoprotein Metabolism in Vitro and in Vivo. Atherosclerosis 1997; 129: 147).

Several other experimental studies have documented lipid-lowering effects for globe artichoke leaf extract and cynarin in vivo (Reference: Kraft K. Artichoke Leaf Extract – Recent Findings Reflecting Effects on Lipid Metabolism, Liver and Gastrointestinal Tracts. Phytomedicine 1997; 4: 369–378; and Fintelmann V, Menssen HG. Artichoke Leaf Extract. Current Knowledge Concerning its Efficacy as a Lipid-Reducer and Antidyspeptic Agent. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 1996; 136: 1405–1414). A study in rats explored the hypocholesterolaemic, hypolipidaemic and choleretic effects of purified (containing 46% caffeoylquinic acids, calculated as chlorogenic acid) and total extracts of globe artichoke leaf (containing 19% caffeoylquinic acids, calculated as chlorogenic acid) (Reference: Lietti A. Choleretic and Cholesterol Lowering Properties of Two Artichoke Extracts. Fitoterapia 1977; 48: 153–158). The purified extract was found to be more potent than the total artichoke extract: purified extract 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally reduced plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations by 33% and 45%, respectively, whereasreductions of only 18% and 14%, respectively, were observed with the total extract (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) (Reference: Lietti A. Choleretic and Cholesterol Lowering Properties of Two Artichoke Extracts. Fitoterapia 1977; 48: 153–158). Both purified (25 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and total extract (200 mg/kg intraperitoneally) significantly enhanced bile secretion following treatment, compared with baseline values; the increase in bile secretion seen with the purified extract was still statistically significant three hours after treatment. The more potent pharmacological activities observed with the purified extract were attributed to the

higher concentration of monocaffeoylquinic acids (e.g. chlorogenic, neochlorogenic) compared with dicaffeoylquinic acids (e.g. cynarin) present.

Another study investigated the effects of cynarin on total cholesterol concentrations in serum and liver of rats given ethanol (6 g/kg/day by gavage over three days) (Reference: Wójcicki J. Effect of 1,5-Dicaffeylquinic Acid (Cynarine) on Cholesterol Levels in Serum and Liver of Acute Ethanol-Treated Rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 1978; 3: 143–145). In rats given ethanol alone, serum cholesterol concentrations rose significantly by 44%, compared with controls (p < 0.01). Rats given ethanol plus cynarin (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 minutes before gavage) showed a significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations, compared with controls (p < 0.05).

 

© Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity

In vitro, a luteolin-rich globe artichoke leaf aqueous extract (flavonoid content around 0.4% w/w) retarded low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner (determined by a prolongation of the lag phase to conjugated diene formation) (Reference: Brown JE, Rice-Evans CA. Luteolin-Rich Artichoke Extract Protects Low Density Lipoprotein from Oxidation in Vitro. Free Radic Res 1998; 29: 247–255).

The same tests carried out with the pure aglycone luteolin at concentrations of 0.1–1 mmol/L showed that this constituent had a similar concentration-dependent effect on LDL oxidation in this model. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside also demonstrated a concentration-dependent reduction in LDL oxidation, but was less potent than luteolin.

Several in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the antioxidative and hepatoprotective properties of globe artichoke leaf extracts, and their constituents, against liver cell damage induced by different hepatotoxins.

The hepatoprotective effect of polyphenolic compounds isolated from artichoke has been investigated in vitro using rat hepatocytes (Reference: Adzet T et al. Hepatoprotective Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds from Cynara Scolymus against CCl4 Toxicity in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes. J Nat Prod 1987; 50: 612–617). Cynarin was the only compound reported to exhibit significant cytoprotective activity, with a lesser action demonstrated by caffeic acid. A standardised extract of globe artichoke (Hepar-SL forte) significantly inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) in a concentration-dependent manner within 40 minutes of incubation, compared with control (Reference: Gebhardt R. Protektive Antioxidative Wirkungen Von Artischockenextrakt an Der Leberzelle. Med Welt 1995; 46: 393–395). The protective antioxidant effect of globe artichoke was reported to be significant, compared with control, even at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. A reduction in t-BHP-induced cell death with globe artichoke extract was also observed.

Further studies assessed the antioxidative and protective potential of the same extract (Hepar-SL forte) in cultures of primary rat hepatocytes exposed to t-BHP.(19) Incubation of cultured hepatocytes with globe artichoke extract and t-BHP inhibited t-BHP-induced malondialdehyde formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Globe artichoke extract was significantly effective, compared with control, at concentrations down to 0.001 mg/mL.

Furthermore, concentrations of globe artichoke extract down to 0.005 mg/mL significantly enhanced hepatocyte survival. The antioxidative effect of the extract was not affected by various pretreatments (including tryptic digestion, boiling and acidification), although it was sensitive to alkalinisation. Incubation with the globe artichoke constituents chlorogenic acid and cynarin resulted in significant inhibition, and incubation with both compounds was reported to have a synergistic effect, although an additive effect may be a more accurate description of the findings. Chlorogenic acid and cynarin were not solely responsible for the antioxidant effect, as reduction of malondialdehyde formation by the extract was at least twofold that seen with the chlorogenic acid and cynarin (Reference: Gebhardt R. Antioxidative and Protective Properties of Extracts from Leaves of the Artichoke (Cynara Scolymus L.) against Hydroperoxideinduced

Oxidative Stress in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1997; 144: 279–286). The antioxidative and hepatoprotective potential of globe artichoke extract was confirmed in other studies which also indicated that several constituents of the extract may contribute to the effects (Reference: Gebhardt R, Fausel M. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Artichoke Extracts and Constituents in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes. Toxicology in Vitro 1997; 11: 669–672).

The effects of globe artichoke leaf extract and its constituents have also been investigated for activity against oxidative stress in studies using human leukocytes (Reference: Perez-Garcia F et al. Activity of Artichoke Leaf Extract on Reactive Oxygen Species in Human Leukocytes. Free Radic Res 2000; 33: 661–665). Globe artichoke leaf extract demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of oxidative stress induced by several agents, such as hydrogen peroxide and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, that generate reactive oxygen species. The constituents cynarin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and luteolin also showed concentration-dependent inhibitory activity in these models.

In vivo hepatoprotectivity against tetrachloromethane-induced hepatitis has been documented for globe artichoke leaf extract (500 mg/kg) administered orally to rats 48 hours, 24 hours and one hour before intoxication (Reference: Adzet T et al. Action of an Artichoke Extract against CCl4-Induced Heptotoxicity in Rats. Acta Pharm Jugosl 1987; 37: 183–187). Concentrations of liver transaminases were significantly lower in rats given globe artichoke leaf extract, compared with those in controls. A hepatoregenerating effect has also been described for an aqueous extract of globe artichoke leaf administered orally to rats for three weeks following partial hepatectomy (Reference: Maros T et al. Wirkungen der Cynara Scolymus-Extrakte Auf Die Regeneration Der Rattenleber. Arzneimittelforschung 1966; 16: 127–129). Regeneration was determined by stimulation of mitosis and increased weight in the residual liver when animals were sacrificed in globe artichoke-treated rats, compared with controls. In a similar study, aqueous extract of globe artichoke leaf (0.5 mL daily for five days preceding hepatectomy) was found to be more potent than a root extract (Reference: Maros T et al. Wirkungen Der Cynara Scolymus-Extrakte Auf Die Regeneration Der Rattenleber. Arzneimittelforschung 1968; 18: 884–886).

 

 Clinical Studies

Several clinical trials have explored the choleretic and hypolipidaemic properties of globe artichoke leaf extract, and its effects in patients with symptoms of dyspepsia. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving 20 male volunteers assessed the choleretic effects of a single intraduodenal dose (1.92 g in 300 mL water) of the globe artichoke leaf extract Hepar-SL forte (Reference: Kirchhoff R et al. Increase in Choleresis by Mmeans of Artichoke Extract. Phytomedicine 1994; 1: 107–115). Intraduodenal bile secretion, the primary

outcome variable, was measured using multichannel probes starting 30 minutes after drug administration and continuing for up to four hours afterwards. An increase in bile secretion was

observed in both groups; maximal increases for globe artichoke leaf extract and placebo were 152% at 60 minutes after drug administration, and 40% at 30 minutes, respectively. Differences between globe artichoke leaf extract and placebo were statistically significant at 30, 60 and 90 minutes after drug administration (p < 0.01) and at 120 and 150 minutes after drug administration (p < 0.05). In another randomised controlled trial, 60 patients with dyspepsia received a combination preparation containing extracts of globe artichoke 50 mg, boldo (Peumus boldus) 30 mg and chelidonium (Chelidonium majus) 20 mg per tablet, or placebo, three times daily for 14 days (Reference: Kupke D et al. Prüfung Der Choleretischen Aktivität Eines Pflanzlichen Cholagogums. Z Allg Med 1991; 67: 1046–1058). The volume of bile secreted, measured using a duodenal probe, increased significantly in the treatment group, compared with the placebo group (p < 0.01). Also, an improvement in symptoms was reported for 50% of the treatment group, compared with 38% of the placebo group. There are also clinical studies in the older literature (some of which were placebo-controlled trials, whereas others were open, uncontrolled studies) which report choleretic effects with globe artichoke leaf extract. These trials have been summarised in several reviews (Reference: Kraft K. Artichoke Leaf Extract – Recent Findings Reflecting Effects on Lipid Metabolism, Liver and Gastrointestinal Tracts. Phytomedicine 1997; 4: 369–378; and Kirchhoff R et al. Increase in Choleresis by Means of Artichoke Extract. Phytomedicine 1994; 1: 107–115; and Mills S, Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000).

The effects of globe artichoke leaf extract have also been monitored in several postmarketing surveillance (phase IV) studies in patients with non-specific gastrointestinal complaints, including dyspepsia (Reference: Fintelmann V, Petrowicz O. Long-Term Administration of an Artichoke Extract for Dyspepsia Symptoms. Results of an Observational Study. Natura Med 1998; 13: 17–26), functional biliary tract complaints, constipation and gastric irritation (Reference: Fintelmann V, Menssen HG. Artichoke Leaf Extract. Current Knowledge Concerning its Efficacy as a Lipid-Reducer and Antidyspeptic Agent. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 1996; 136: 1405–1414). The studies monitored the effects of globe artichoke leaf extract (Hepar-SL forte; one capsule contains 320 mg standardised aqueous extract; drug–extract ratio: 3.5 to 5.5 : 1) up to six capsules daily for six weeks (Reference: Fintelmann V, Menssen HG. Artichoke Leaf Extract. Current Knowledge Concerning its Efficacy as a Lipid-Reducer and Antidyspeptic Agent. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 1996; 136: 1405–1414) or six months (Reference: Fintelmann V, Petrowicz O. Long-Term Administration of an Artichoke Extract for yspepsia Symptoms. Results of an Observational Study. Natura Med 1998; 13: 17–26).

Both studies reported improvements in clinical symptoms and reductions in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, compared with baseline values. A subgroup analysis of 279 patients with at least three of five symptoms of irritable bowelsyndrome reported significant reductions in the severity of symptoms and favourable evaluations of overall effectiveness by both physicians and participants (Reference: Walker A et al. Artichoke Leaf Extract Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Post-Marketing Surveillance Study. Phytother Res 2001; 15: 58–61). The findings from post-marketing surveillance studies provide supporting data for the effects of globe artichoke leaf extract, but these are open studies

and do not include a control group and, therefore, are not designed to assess efficacy.

The efficacy of globe artichoke leaf extract in patients with hyperlipoproteinaemia has been assessed in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial involving 143 patients with initial total cholesterol concentrations of > 7.3 mmol/L (> 280 mg/dL) (Reference: Englisch Wet al. Efficacy of Artichoke Dry Extract in Patients with Hyperlipoproteinemia. Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res 2000; 50: 260–265.). Participants received globe artichoke leaf extract (CY450; drug–extract ratio: 25 to 35 : 1) 1800 mg daily in two divided doses, or placebo, for six weeks. At the end of the study, mean total cholesterol concentrations had decreased by

18.5% to 6.31 mmol/L and by 8.6% to 7.03 mmol/L in the CY450 and placebo groups, respectively (p < 0.0001). CY450 treatment also led to a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol, compared with placebo (p = 0.0001). There was no difference between CY450 recipients and placebo recipients in blood concentrations of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT).

A published abstract reports the findings of a previous randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a globe artichoke leaf extract (Hepar-SL forte; 640 mg three times daily for 12 weeks) involving 44 healthy volunteers (Reference: Petrowicz O et al. Effects of Artichoke Leaf Extract (ALE) on Lipoprotein Metabolism in Vitro and in Vivo. Atherosclerosis 1997; 129: 147). Mean baseline total cholesterol concentrations for participants in this study were low (placebo group: 203.0 mg/dL; globe artichoke extract group: 204.2 mg/dL). Subgroup analysis suggested lipid-lowering effects with globe artichoke extract for participants with baseline total cholesterol concentrations of >200 mg/dL. However, numbers of participants included in this analysis were small. The study indicates only that trials in patients with hyperlipoproteinaemia are required.

A series of three open, uncontrolled studies involved the administration of pressed globe artichoke juice (obtained from fresh leaves and flower buds) 10 mL three times daily for up to 12 weeks to a total of 84 patients with secondary hyperlipidaemia (total cholesterol 5260 mg/dL).(28) After six weeks' treatment, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol tended to increase. Another uncontrolled study involved the administration of cynarin to 17 patients with familial type IIa or type Iib hyperlipoproteinaemia for whom blood lipid concentrations were maintained with dietary treatment alone (Reference: Heckers H et al. Inefficiency of Cynarin as Therapeutic Regimen in Familial Type II Hyperlipoproteinaemia. Atherosclerosis 1977; 26: 249–253). Cynarin was taken 15 minutes before meals at either 250 mg or 750 mg daily dose. Over a period of three months, cynarin was reported to have no effect on mean serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (Reference: Heckers H et al. Inefficiency of Cynarin as Therapeutic Regimen in Familial Type II Hyperlipoproteinaemia. Atherosclerosis 1977; 26: 249–253). The results were in agreement with the findings of some previous workers, but also in contrast to other studies that have reported cynarin to be effective in lowering serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides when taken in daily doses ranging from 60 mg to 1500 mg (Reference: Heckers H et al. Inefficiency of Cynarin as Therapeutic Regimen in Familial Type II Hyperlipoproteinaemia. Atherosclerosis 1977; 26: 249–253).

A Cochrane systematic review(30) of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of artichoke preparations for hyper-cholesterolaemia included two studies (Reference: Petrowicz O et al. Effects of Artichoke Leaf Extract (ALE) on Lipoprotein Metabolism in Vitro and in Vivo. Atherosclerosis 1997; 129: 147, 27). The review concluded that there is limited evidence from randomised controlled trials to support the use of artichoke leaf preparations in hypercholesterolaemia and that such preparations cannot be recommended as a treatment option

(Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A.; Phillipson, J. D.; "Herbal Medicines"; Pharmaceutical Press; 3rd Revised edition; September 17; 2007).

 

 Food

Large Globe rtichokes are frequently prepared by removing all but 5–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in) or so of the stem. To remove thorns, which may interfere with eating, around a quarter of each scale can be cut off. To cook, the artichoke is boiled or steamed. A cooked, unseasoned artichoke has a delicate flavour.

Salt may be added to the water if boiling artichokes. Covered artichokes, in particular those that have been cut, can turn brown due to the enzymatic browning and chlorophyll oxidation. Placing them in water slightly acidified with vinegar or lemon juice can prevent the discoloration.

Leaves are often removed one at a time, and the fleshy base eaten, with vinaigrette, hollandaise, vinegar, butter, mayonnaise, aioli, lemon juice, or other sauces. The fibrous upper part of each leaf is usually discarded. The heart is eaten when the inedible choke has been peeled away from the base and discarded. The thin leaves covering the choke are also edible.

In Italy, artichoke hearts in oil are the usual vegetable for “spring” section of the “Four Seasons” pizza (with olives for summer, mushrooms for autumn, and prosciutto for winter). A recipe well known in Rome is Jewish-style artichokes, which are deep-fried whole. The softer parts of artichokes are also eaten raw, one leaf at the time dipped in vinegar and olive oil, or thinly sliced and dressed with lemon and olive oil.

There are many stuffed artichoke recipes. A common Italian stuffing uses a mixture of bread crumbs, garlic, oregano, parsley, grated cheese, and prosciutto or sausage. A bit of the mixture is then pushed into the spaces at the base of each leaf and into the center before boiling or steaming. A similar recipe is popular in coastal Croatia. In Spain, the tenderer, younger, and smaller artichokes are used. They can be sprinkled with olive oil and left in hot ashes in a barbecue, sautéed in olive oil with garlic, with rice as a paella, or sautéed and combined with eggs in a tortilla (frittata).

Often cited is the Greek aginares a la polita (“artichokes city-style”, referring to the city of Constantinople), a hearty, savory stew made with artichoke hearts, potatoes, and carrots, and flavored with onion, lemon, and dill. The island of Tinos, or the villages of Iria and Kantia in the Peloponnese, still very much celebrate their local production, including with a day of the artichoke or an artichoke festival.

Another way to use artichokes is to completely break off all of the leaves, leaving the bare heart. The leaves are steamed to soften the fleshy base part of each leaf to be used as the basis for any number of side dishes or appetizing dips, or the fleshy part is left attached to the heart, while the upper parts of the leaves are discarded. The remaining concave-shaped heart is often filled with meat, then fried or baked in a savory sauce. Frozen artichoke hearts are a time-saving substitute, though the consistency and stronger flavor of fresh hearts when available is preferred.

Throughout North Africa, the Middle East, Turkey, and Armenia, a favorite filling for stuffed artichoke hearts includes ground lamb. Spices reflect the local cuisine of each country. In Lebanon, for example, the typical filling would include lamb, onion, tomato, pinenuts, raisins, parsley, dill, mint, black pepper, and allspice. A popular Turkish vegetarian variety uses only onion, carrot, green peas, and salt. Artichokes are often prepared with white sauces and other sauces.

 Herbal Tea

Artichokes can also be made into a herbal tea. “Artichoke tea” is produced as a commercial product in the Da Lat region of Vietnam. A herbal tea called Ceai de Anghinare based on artichoke is made in Romania. The flower portion is put into water and consumed as a herbal tea in Mexico. It has a slightly bitter woody taste.

 

 Liqueur

Artichoke is the primary flavor of the 33-proof (16.5%-alcohol) Italian liqueur Cynar produced by the Campari Group. It can be served over ice as an aperitif or as a cocktail mixed with orange juice, especially popular in Switzerland. It is also used to make a 'Cin Cyn', a slightly less-bitter version of the Negroni cocktail, by substituting Cynar for Campari

(“Artichoke”; www.wikipedia.com)

 : How to Use  

 Parts Used:

The leaves harvested just prior to flowering and dried. The flower buds (the “chokes”), harvested while young and succulent.

 

 Tincture of Dried Leaf:

1:5 (50A:50W)

 

 Water Extract:

Basic tea of the dried leaves.

 

 Direct Consumption:

Thoroughly boil or steam the flower bud for 20 minutes or more, until the fleshy sepals (scales) are cooked through. Dip the scales in garlic oil or melted butter with garlic, and use the teeth to strip off the edible, fleshy portions. Eat the heart, but reject the pappus hairs and spiny parts.

 

 Practical Uses:

The tincture or tea of artichoke leaves, and to a lesser extent the chokes eaten as a nutritious food, are a valuable stimulant to the liver and the gall bladder, promoting production of bile and assisting in digestion of fats. The herb is a specific for treating dyspepsia caused by overeating or the excessive use of fats in the diet. As a secondary effect, the herb also demonstrates Hepatoprotective activity (much like milk thistle, which see). Use of artichoke is a valuable therapy for treating arteriosclerosis, gallstones, elevated blood cholesterol, and obesity

(Cech, Richo; Cech, Sena; “Making Plant Medicine”; Herbal Reads LLC; 2016).

 : Prohibition  

 Pregnancy and lactation

In view of the lack of toxicity data, excessive use of globe artichoke should be avoided during pregnancy and lactation.

(Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A.; Phillipson, J. D.; “Herbal Medicines”; Pharmaceutical Press; 3rd Revised edition; September 17; 2007).


 : Side Effect 

 Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects

Not covered (AHP).”Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Commission E reports contraindications of hypersensitivity to artichoke and other Asteraceae; biliary obstruction or gallstones (AEH; KOM). None expected (MAB). Sesquiterpene lactones are allergenic and may cause dermatosis (CAN)

(Duke, James A.; Jo Bogenschutz-Godwin, Mary; duCellier, Judi; Duke, Peggy-Ann K.; “Handbook of Medicinal Herbs”; 2002).

 

 Precautions

Although it is a remedy without toxicity, is not recommended for gallstones without the supervision of a specialist. Nor is it recommended for infants. It is contraindicated for persons suffering from bile duct obstruction

(Luengo, López; Tránsito, Mária; Máñez, Carlota; “Medicinal Plants at Home: More Than 100 Easy, Practical, and Efficient Natural Remedies”; Skyhorse; 2015).

 

 Toxicity

A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 143 patients with hyperlipoproteinaemia reported a similar frequency of adverse events for globe artichoke leaf extract (CY450) and placebo groups. A total of 28 adverse events were reported during the study, 26 of which related to mild changes in laboratory values. The relationship to the globe artichoke was considered to be 'unlikely' in all cases.

Postmarketing surveillance (phase IV) studies have monitored patients with non-specific gastrointestinal complaints receiving treatment with globe artichoke leaf extract (Hepar-SL forte; up to 1.92 g daily for six weeks or six months).

In one study involving 533 patients with non-specific gastrointestinal complaints, including dyspepsia, functional biliary tract complaints, constipation and gastric irritation, seven adverse events (weakness, hunger, flatulence) were reported (1.3% of participants).

No serious adverse events were reported. A second postmarketing surveillance study involved 203 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia who received globe artichoke leaf extract up to 1.92 g daily for up to six months (Reference: Fintelmann V, Petrowicz O. Long-Term Administration of An Artichoke Extract for Dyspepsia Symptoms. Results of an Observational Study. Natura Med 1998; 13: 17–26). It was reported that no adverse events were recorded during the study, and that the physician's overall judgement of tolerability was given as 'good' or 'excellent' in 98.5% of cases.

Allergic contact dermatitis, with cross-sensitivity to other Compositae plants, has been documented for globe artichoke.  A case of occupational contact urticaria syndrome in a 20-year-old woman has been reported in association with globe artichoke. The woman developed acute generalised urticaria, angioedema of the hands, forearms and face, and respiratory symptoms after handling globe artichokes. The clinical history and results of skin-prick tests indicated that the woman had developed type I allergy to globe artichoke antigen(s). An isolated case of allergy to ingested globe artichoke has also been described.

Cynaropicrin and other sesquiterpene lactones with allergenic potential have been isolated from globe artichoke. Purified globe artichoke extract is more toxic than a total extract. LD50 values (rat, by intraperitoneal injection) have been documented as greater than 1000 mg/kg (total extract) and 265 mg/kg (purified extract)

(Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A.; Phillipson, J. D.; “Herbal Medicines”; Pharmaceutical Press; 3rd Revised edition; September 17; 2007).

 

 Warning

Contraindicated in cases of known allergies to the composite family; also in case of bile duct obstruction

(Hobbs, Christopher; Foster, Steven;  Peterson, Roger Tory; “A Peterson Field Guide to Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs (Peterson Field Guides)”; Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; Peterson Field Guides; 2002).

 

 Side-Effects, Toxicity

A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 143 patients with hyperlipoproteinaemia reported a similar frequency of adverse events for globe artichoke leaf extract (CY450) and placebo groups (Reference: Englisch Wet al. Efficacy of artichoke dry extract in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res 2000; 50: 260–265). A total of 28 adverse events were reported during the study, 26 of which related to mild changes in laboratory values. The relationship to the globe artichoke was considered to be 'unlikely' in all cases.

Postmarketing surveillance (phase IV) studies have monitored patients with non-specific gastrointestinal complaints receiving treatment with globe artichoke leaf extract [Hepar-SL forte; up to 1.92 g daily for six weeks (Reference: Englisch Wet al. Efficacy of Artichoke Dry Extract in Patients with Hyperlipoproteinemia. Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res 2000; 50: 260–265) or six months (Reference: Fintelmann V, Petrowicz O. Long-Term Administration of an Artichoke Extract for Dyspepsia Symptoms. Results of an Observational Study. Natura Med 1998; 13: 17–26)]. In one study involving 533 patients with non-specific gastrointestinal complaints, including dyspepsia, functional biliary tract complaints, constipation and gastric irritation, seven adverse events (weakness, hunger, flatulence) were reported (1.3% of participants) (Reference: Fintelmann V, Menssen HG. Artichoke Leaf Extract. Current Knowledge Concerning its Efficacy as a Lipid-Reducer and Antidyspeptic Agent. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 1996; 136: 1405–1414).

No serious adverse events were reported. A second postmarketing surveillance study involved 203 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia who received globe artichoke leaf extract up to 1.92 g daily for up to six months (Reference: Fintelmann V, Petrowicz O. Long-Term Administration of an Artichoke Extract for Dyspepsia Symptoms. Results of an Observational Study. Natura Med 1998; 13: 17–26). It was reported that no adverse events were recorded during the study, and that the physician's overall judgement of tolerability was given as 'good' or 'excellent' in 98.5% of cases.

Allergic contact dermatitis, with cross-sensitivity to other Compositae plants, has been documented for globe artichoke (Reference: Meding B. Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Artichoke, Cynara Scolymus. Contact Dermatitis 1983; 9: 314; and Mitchell J, Rook A. Botanical Dermatology – Plants and Plant Products Injurious to the Skin. Vancouver: Greengrass, 1979). A case of occupational contact urticaria syndrome in a 20-year-old woman has been reported in association with globe

artichoke. The woman developed acute generalised urticaria, angioedema of the hands, forearms and face, and respiratory symptoms after handling globe artichokes. The clinical history and results of skin-prick tests indicated that the woman had developed type I allergy to globe artichoke antigen(s) (Reference: Quirce S et al. Occupational Contact Urticaria Syndrome Caused by Globe Artichoke (Cynara Scolymus). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996; 97: 710–711). An isolated case of allergy to ingested globe artichoke has also been described (Reference: Romano C et al. A Case of Allergy to Globe Artichoke and other Clinical Cases of Rare Food Allergy. J Invest Allergol Clin Immunol 2000; 10: 102–104).

Cynaropicrin and other sesquiterpene lactones with allergenic potential have been isolated from globe artichoke (Reference: Meding B. Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Artichoke, Cynara Scolymus. Contact Dermatitis 1983; 9: 314; and Morelli I et al. Selected Medicinal Plants. Rome: FAO, 1983). Purified globe artichoke extract is more toxic than a total extract. LD50 values (rat, by intraperitoneal injection) have been documented as greater than 1000 mg/kg (total extract) and 265 mg/kg (purified extract).

 

 Contra-Indications, Warnings

Globe artichoke yields cynaropicrin, a potentially allergenic sesquiterpene lactone (Reference: Mitchell J, Rook A. Botanical Dermatology – Plants and Plant Products Injurious to the Skin. Vancouver: Greengrass, 1979). Individuals with an existing hypersensitivity to any member of the Compositae family may develop an allergic reaction to globe artichoke

(Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A.; Phillipson, J. D.; “Herbal Medicines”; Pharmaceutical Press; 3rd Revised edition; September 17; 2007).

 

 The Side Effects of Artichoke

The side effects of Artichoke are mild, though they may include:

 

- Severe Asthma;

- Nephrotoxicity;

- Contact Dermatitis;

- Flatulence;

- Diarrhea;

- Nausea;

- Hunger;

- Increased Bile Secretion;

- Reduced Platelet Aggregation;

- Respiratory Disorders

("Artichoke"; Vitagene).


 : Drug Interaction 

None documented. However, the potential for preparations of artichoke to interact with other medicines administered concurrently, particularly those with similar or opposing effects, should be considered

(Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A.; Phillipson, J. D.; “Herbal Medicines”; Pharmaceutical Press; 3rd Revised edition edition; September 17; 2007).

 

 Medication Interactions

There are no reported medication interactions for Artichoke.

 

 Supplement and Food Interactions

There are no reported supplement, herb, or food interactions for Artichoke

("Artichoke"; Vitagene).


 : Habitat and Distribution 

 Varieties

 

 Traditional Cultivars (Vegetative Propagation)

 

 

© Green, Big

'Vert de Laon' (France), 'Camus de Bretagne', 'Castel' (France), 'Green Globe' (USA, South Africa).

 

© Green, Medium-Size

'Verde Palermo' (Sicily, Italy), 'Blanca de Tudela' (Spain), 'Argentina', 'Española' (Chile), 'Blanc d'Oran' (Algeria), 'Sakiz', 'Bayrampasha' (Turkey).

 

© Purple, Big

'Romanesco', 'C3' (Italy).

 

© Purple, Medium-Size

'Violet de Provence' (France), 'Brindisino', 'Catanese', 'Niscemese' (Sicily), 'Violet d'Algerie' (Algeria), 'Baladi' (Egypt), 'Ñato' (Argentina), 'Violetta di Chioggia' (Italy).

 

© Spined

'Spinoso Sardo e Ingauno' (Sardinia, Italy), 'Criolla' (Peru).

 

© White

In some places of the world.

 

 

 

 Cultivars Propagated by Seeds

 

 

© For Industry

'Madrigal', 'Lorca', 'A-106', 'Imperial Star'.

 

© Green

'Symphony', 'Harmony'.

 

© Purple

'Concerto', 'Opal', 'Tempo'

(“Artichoke”; www.wikipedia.com).

 

 Cultivation

Although it is typical of the Mediterranean countries, where it is grown in gardens, nowadays it is grown in temperate regions around the world.

 

 Harvesting

Its leaves, preferably those grown in the first year, stem, and flower heads (artichokes) are harvested from autumn to spring (it is harvested in multiple steps). Its leaves are dried in the sun and stored in glass jars in a dark and dry place for no longer than 1 year.

(Luengo, López; Tránsito, Mária; Máñez, Carlota; “Medicinal Plants at Home: More Than 100 Easy, Practical, and Efficient Natural Remedies”; Skyhorse; 2015).

 

Today, cultivation of the Globe Artichoke is concentrated in the countries bordering the Mediterranean basin. The main European producers are Italy, Spain, and France and the main American producers are Argentina, Peru and the United States. In the United States, California provides nearly 100% of the U.S. crop, and about 80% of that is grown in Monterey County; there, Castroville proclaims itself to be “The Artichoke Center of the World”, and holds the annual Castroville Artichoke Festival. Most recently, artichokes have been grown in South Africa in a small town called Parys located along the Vaal River.


Artichokes can be produced from seeds or from vegetative means such as division, root cuttings, or micropropagation. Although technically perennials that normally produce the edible flower during only the second and subsequent years, certain varieties of artichokes can be grown from seed as annuals, producing a limited harvest at the end of the first growing season, even in regions where the plants are not normally winter-hardy. This means home gardeners in northern regions can attempt to produce a crop without the need to overwinter plants with special treatment or protection. The seed cultivar 'Imperial Star' has been bred to produce in the first year without such measures. An even newer cultivar, 'Northern Star', is said to be able to overwinter in more northerly climates, and readily survives subzero temperatures.

Commercial culture is limited to warm areas in USDA hardiness zone 7 and above. It requires good soil, regular watering and feeding, and frost protection in winter. Rooted suckers can be planted each year, so mature specimens can be disposed of after a few years, as each individual plant lives only a few years. The peak season for artichoke harvesting is the spring, but they can continue to be harvested throughout the summer, with another peak period in midautumn.

When harvested, they are cut from the plant so as to leave an inch or two of stem. Artichokes possess good keeping qualities, frequently remaining quite fresh for two weeks or longer under average retail conditions.

Apart from food use, the globe artichoke is also an attractive plant for its bright floral display, sometimes grown in herbaceous borders for its bold foliage and large, purple flower heads

(“Artichoke”; www.wikipedia.com).

 : Chemical Constituents 

It contains Cynarin, Flavonoids, essential Oil, Triterpenoids, Tannins, Steroids, and Polysaccharides (Inulin and Mucilage)

(Luengo, López; Tránsito, Mária; Máñez, Carlota; “Medicinal Plants at Home: More Than 100 Easy, Practical, and Efficient Natural Remedies”; Skyhorse; 2015).

 

Constituents

Acids

Acids Phenolic, up to 2%. Caffeic acid, mono- and dicaffeoyl-quinic acid derivatives, e.g. Cynarin (1,5-di-O-Caffeoylquinic Acids) and Chlorogenic Acid (Mono Derivative).

 

 Flavonoids

Flavonoids 0.1–1%. Flavone Glycosides, e.g. Luteolin-7b-Rutino-Side (Scolymoside), Luteolin-7b-D-Glucoside and Luteolin-4b-D-glucoside.

 

 Volatile Oils

Volatile Oils Sesquiterpenes b-selinene and caryophyllene (major); also eugenol, phenylacetaldehyde, decanal, oct-1-en-3-one, hex-1-en-3-one, and non-trans-2-enal.

 

 Other Constituents

Other constituents Phytosterols (taraxasterol and b-taraxa-sterol), tannins, glycolic and glyceric acids, sugars, inulin, enzymes including peroxidases (Reference: Kamel MY, Ghazy AM. Peroxidases of Cyanara Scolymus (Global Artichoke) Leaves: Purification and Properties. Acta Biol Med Germ 1973; 31: 39–49), cynaropicrin and other sesquiterpene lactones, e.g. grosheimin, cynarotriol (Reference: Jouany JM et al. Dosage Indirect De La Cynaropicrine Dans La Cynara Scolymus (Compositae) Par Libération De Sa Chaîne Latérale Hydroxyméthylacrylique. Plant Méd Phytothér 1975; 9: 72–78, and 5 Barbetti P et al. Grosulfeimin and New Related Guaianolides from Cynara Scolymus L. Ars Pharmac 1992; 33: 433–439). The root and fully developed fruits and flowers are devoid of cynaropicrin; highest

content reported in young leaves (Reference: Schneider G, Thiele Kl. Die Verteilung Des Bitterstoffes Cynaropicrin in Der Artischocke. Planta Med 1974; 26: 174–183).

(The above is compiled from several sources, including:

 

- Brand N. Cynara Scolymus L. – Die Artischocke. Z Phytother 1990; 11: 169–175.

- Hammouda FM et al. Quantitative Determination of the Active Constituents in Egyptian Cultivated Cynara Scolymus. Int J Pharmacog 1993; 31: 299–304.

- Mabey R., ed. The Complete New Herbal. London: Elm Tree Books, 1988).


(Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A.; Phillipson, J. D.; "Herbal Medicines"; Pharmaceutical Press; 3rd Revised edition; September 17; 2007).

 : Preservation/Storage 

 Safety

Artichoke is safe when consumed orally through food sources. Artichoke has achieved Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status in the United States. Artichoke is possibly safe when used orally in medicinal amounts, under the supervision of a physician. Artichoke extract is safe to use for up to 23 months.

There is insufficient information on the safety of artichoke in therapeutic amounts for children. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are best off avoiding artichoke in therapeutic amounts due to lack of information about its safety and impact on lactation

("Artichoke"; Vitagene).

 


 :  Other Descriptions 

 Scientific Classification

Kingdom:

Plantae

Clade:

Angiosperms

Clade:

Eudicots

Clade:

Asterids

Order:

Asterales

Family:

Asteraceae

Genus:

Cynara

Species:

  1. Cardunculus

Variety:

  1. C. Var. Scolymus

(“Artichoke”; www.wikipedia.com).

 

 APG IV Classification

Domain:

Eukaryota

(unranked):

Archaeplastida

Regnum:

Plantae

Cladus:

Angiosperms

Cladus:

Eudicots

Cladus:

Core Eudicots

Cladus:

Superasterids

Cladus:

Asterids

Cladus:

Euasterids II

Ordo:

Asterales

Familia:

Asteraceae

Subfamilia:

Carduoideae

Tribus:

Cardueae

Genus:

Cynara

Species:

Cynara cardunculus L. (1753)

(“Cynara cardunculus Scolymus Group”; www.wikipedia.com).

 

 Globe Artichoke

The Globe Artichoke (Cynara Cardunculus var. Scolymus), also known as French Artichoke and Green Artichoke in the USA, is a variety of a species of thistle cultivated as a food.

The edible portion of the plant consists of the flower buds before the flowers come into bloom. The budding artichoke flower-head is a cluster of many budding small flowers (an inflorescence), together with many bracts, on an edible base. Once the buds bloom, the structure changes to a coarse, barely edible form. Another variety of the same species is the cardoon, a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean region. Both wild forms and cultivated varieties (cultivars) exist.

This vegetable grows to 1.4–2 m (4.6–6.6 ft) tall, with arching, deeply lobed, silvery, glaucous-green leaves 50–82 cm (20–32 in) long. The flowers develop in a large head from an edible bud about 8–15 cm (3–6 in) diameter with numerous triangular scales; the individual florets are purple. The edible portions of the buds consist primarily of the fleshy lower portions of the involucral bracts and the base, known as the “heart”; the mass of immature florets in the center of the bud is called the “choke” or beard. These are inedible in older, larger flowers.

 

 Early History of Use

The artichoke is mentioned as a garden plant in the 8th century BC by Homer and Hesiod. The naturally occurring variant of the artichoke, the cardoon (Cynara cardunculus), which is native to the Mediterranean area, also has records of use as a food among the ancient Greeks and Romans. Pliny the Elder mentioned growing of 'carduus' in Carthage and Cordoba. In North Africa, where it is still found in the wild state, the seeds of artichokes, probably cultivated, were found during the excavation of Roman-period Mons Claudianus in Egypt. Varieties of artichokes were cultivated in Sicily beginning in the classical period of the ancient Greeks; the Greeks calling them kaktos. In that period, the Greeks ate the leaves and flower heads, which cultivation had already improved from the wild form. The Romans called the vegetable carduus (hence the name cardoon). Further improvement in the cultivated form appears to have taken place in the medieval period in Muslim Spain and the Maghreb, although the evidence is inferential only.

The names for artichoke in English (artichoke) and many other European languages today (e.g. Italian carciofo, Spanish alcachofa, French artichaut) can be traced back to medieval Andalusi Arabic الخرشوف ʔal-ḫaršūf, which is still used in Maghrebi Arabic today (see also Israeli Hebrew חֻרְשָׁף khursháf “artichoke”, without the ʔal, which is the Arabic definite article). The modern Levantine Arabic lexical item أرضي شوكي (ʔarḍī šawkī) is not the source of artichoke. On the contrary. The Arabic ʔarḍī šawkī means literally “earthly thorny” and is in reality a phono-semantic matching of the very European lexical items (e.g. English artichoke) that can be traced back ultimately to the Arabic lexical item الخرشوف  ʔal-ḫaršūf.

Le Roy Ladurie, in his book Les Paysans de Languedoc, has documented the spread of artichoke cultivation in Italy and southern France in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when the artichoke appeared as a new arrival with a new name, which may be taken to indicate an arrival of an improved cultivated variety:

The blossom of the thistle, improved by the Arabs, passed from Naples to Florence in 1466, carried by Filippo Strozzi. Towards 1480 it is noticed in Venice, as a curiosity. But very soon veers towards the northwest ... Artichoke beds are mentioned in Avignon by the notaries from 1532 onward; from the principle [sic] towns they spread into the hinterlands ... appearing as carchofas at Cavaillon in 1541, at Chateauneuf du Pape in 1553, at Orange in 1554. The local name remains carchofas, from the Italian carciofo ... They are very small, the size of a hen's egg ... and are still considered a luxury, a vaguely aphrodisiac tidbit that one preserved in sugar syrup.

The Dutch introduced Artichokes to England, where they grew in Henry VIII's garden at Newhall in 1530. They were taken to the United States in the 19th century—to Louisiana by French immigrants and to California by Spanish immigrants

(“Artichoke”; www.wikipedia.com).

 

 Growing

It grows up to 5 feet (1.5 meters) high. Its grayish green leaves are large and very segmented. Its violet-blue flower heads are surrounded by bracts (false leaves), on which the edible part rests

(Luengo, López; Tránsito, Mária; Máñez, Carlota; “Medicinal Plants at Home: More Than 100 Easy, Practical, and Efficient Natural Remedies”; Skyhorse; 2015).

 

 Genome

The globe artichoke genome has been sequenced. The genome assembly covers 725 of the 1,084 Mb genome and the sequence codes for about 27,000 genes. Understanding of the genome structure is important to understanding traits of the globe artichoke, and may aid in the identification of economically important genes from related species

(“Artichoke”; www.wikipedia.com).

§ Gardening

 Description

The plant resembles a giant, silver-green fern and the flowers are a stunning electric lavendar.

 

 Attributes

© Wildlife Value

Flowers are attractive to pollinators.

 

© Edibility

The fleshy phyllaries can be eaten and the flowers can be made into tea.

 

 Dimensions

Height: 3 ft. 0 in. - 5 ft. 0 in.

Width: 2 ft. 0 in. - 3 ft. 0 in.

 

 Whole Plant Traits

© Plant Type

- Annual;

- Edible;

- Vegetable.

 

 Cultural Conditions

© Light

Full Sun

(6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day).

 

© Available Space To Plant

3 feet-6 feet.

 

 Cultural Conditions

© Flower Color

Purple/Lavender.

 

© Flower Value To Gardener

- Edible;

- Showy.

 

 Leaves

© Leaf Color

Gray/Silver.

 

© Leaf Value To Gardener

Showy.

 

© Hairs Present

No.

 

 Stem

© Stem Is Aromatic

No.

 

 Landscape

© Landscape Theme

Edible Garden;

Pollinator Garden.

 

© Attracts

- Bees;

- Butterflies;

- Pollinators.

(“Cynara Cardunculus (Scolymus Group)”; North California Extension Gardener Plan Toolbox).

 

 Landscape

Start artichoke seeds indoors in late winter, under bright florescent lights. The large seeds will germinate within a week at warm room temperatures, and seedlings should be potted into larger containers as they grow. Six weeks before your last frost date, start hardening off seedlings by gradually exposing them to bright sun, wind and cool temperatures.

Set artichoke plants out in prepared beds 3 to 4 weeks before your last frost date. Exposure to cool temperatures below 45 degrees is necessary to trigger flowering. Before transplanting artichokes, enrich each planting hole with a balanced organic fertilizer, and space plants 3 feet apart.

Globe artichokes have average fertility needs, similar to those of tomatoes. In areas where artichokes are grown as perennials, container or bare-rooted plants can be set out in spring.  When setting out artichoke seedlings, plant them slightly high, so that the crown is well above the soil line.

 

 Growing Artichokes

A month after planting, drench actively growing artichokes with a high-nitrogen liquid fertilizer to invigorate new growth. Artichoke plants grow 3 to 5 feet tall, and their spiny gray-green foliage makes them useful as edible ornamentals. As older leaves wither, gather them up and compost them.

 

 Harvesting and Storage

In mid- to late-summer, watch for upright flowering stems topped by artichoke flower buds. Use a sharp knife to cut globe artichokes with a 2-inch stub of stem attached when the lowest scales on the bud begin to open, but the top is still tight. Refrigerate artichokes immediately, and wash just before cooking them. After the first artichokes are harvested, plants typically produce a second crop of smaller buds.

For long-term storage, you can freeze whole washed artichokes that have been steamed until just done. When thawed, the artichokes can be cut in half and grilled.

 

 Propagating Artichokes

Artichoke seedlings are not as uniform as other vegetables, and some plants are stronger producers than others. Where globe artichokes are winter hardy, superior plants should be propagated vegetatively, by cutting off the small “pups” that emerge in spring and rooting them.

Vigorous artichoke plants also may be allowed to bloom and set seed where summers are long enough for the seeds to ripen. Choose a large bud from a favorite plant and let it stay on the plant until it blooms and then shrivels to brown. Cut the dried flower and keep it in a paper bag indoors for two weeks before shattering it and gathering the seeds. Under good conditions, artichoke seeds remain viable for at least six years

(“All About Growing Artichokes”; Mother Earth News - The Original Guide to Living Wisely).


 :  Images 

Inflorescence and Flowers :

Vegetables :

Fields :

Food :

Artichokes in Art :

(“Cynara Cardunculus Scolymus Group”; www.wikpedia.com).

 :  Abbreviation 

  • APA

Peirce, A., The APhA Practical Guide to Natural Medicines, Stonesong Press Book, Wm. Morrow & Co., Inc., New York, 1999.

  • BGB

Blumenthal, M., Goldberg, A., and Brinckmann, J., Herbal Medicine — Expanded Commission E Monographs, Integrative Medicine Communications, Newton, MA, 2000.

  • CAN

Newall, C.A., Anderson, L.A., and Phillipson, J.D., Herbal Medicine — A Guide for Health-Care Professionals, The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1996.

  • HHB

List, P.H. and Hohammer, L., Hager’s Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2–6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969–1979.

  • KOM

Blumenthal, M. et al., Eds., The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines, American Botanical Council, Austin, TX and Integrative Medicine Communications, Boston, MA, 1998.

  • MAB

Mills, S. and Bone, K., Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1999.

  • PH2

Gruenwald, J. et al., PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2nd ed., Medical Economics Co., Montvale, NJ, 2000.

  • PHR

Fleming, T. et al., PDR for Herbal Medicine, 1st ed., Medical Economics Co., Montvale, NJ, 1998.

  • SHT

Schulz, V., Hansel, R., and Tyler, V.E., Rational Phytotherapy — A Physician’s Guide to Herbal Medicine, 3rd ed., 1st English ed., translated by Telger, T.C., Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1998.

  • WOI

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products, 11 vols., CSIR, New Delhi, 1948–1976.

(Duke, James A.; Jo Bogenschutz-Godwin, Mary; duCellier, Judi; Duke, Peggy-Ann K.; “Handbook of Medicinal Herbs”; 2002).


 :  References 

1 - Giagani herbal research group

Giagani ،  Herbal Research Group

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